管理评论 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (11): 324-340.

• 金融科技与区块链 • 上一篇    

区块链的共识与分叉:The DAO案例对以太坊分叉的影响分析及启示

朱晓武, 魏文石   

  1. 中国政法大学商学院, 北京 100088
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-30 发布日期:2022-01-12
  • 作者简介:朱晓武,中国政法大学商学院教授,博士;魏文石,中国政法大学商学院硕士研究生。
  • 基金资助:
    中国政法大学科研创新项目(1000-10820419;18ZFG63001);教育部人文社会科学规划项目(17YJA630148)。

Consensus and Forks of Blockchain:Analysis and Implications of The DAO's Impact on Ethereum

Zhu Xiaowu, Wei Wenshi   

  1. Business School, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing 100088
  • Received:2020-09-30 Published:2022-01-12

摘要: 探究共识与分叉的因果机理是区块链治理的关键问题。在突发事件下(如黑客攻击)区块链难以达成共识,导致分叉。本文从独特的视角研究一个重大区块链项目的失败案例(The DAO),分析黑客攻击事件如何影响区块链的共识与分叉。构建区块链的经济理论框架,建立共识模型并求解均衡条件。从短期和长期两个角度分析当区块链项目遭遇黑客攻击后,矿工既得利益、区块链应用价值判断和挖矿难度调整三个因素导致区块链分叉的机理,并讨论矿工风险厌恶、多链挖矿对共识和分叉的影响。研究发现:由于矿工算力差异、利益诉求有别,回撤操作反而造成区块链难以达成共识,原链分叉为高价值、高难度的新链,以及低价值、低难度的旧链,破坏区块链的最优均衡。本文深化区块链治理的理论,为数字货币是否采用区块链技术、区块链技术的发展和监管等问题提供有意义的启示。

关键词: 区块链治理, 共识, 分叉, 数字经济, 均衡

Abstract: Exploring the causal mechanism of consensus and forks is a key issue in blockchain governance. Under emergencies (such as hacker attacks), it is difficult to reach consensus. This paper investigates a failure case (The DAO) of a significant blockchain project and then analyzes how hacker attacks affect the consensus and forks of the blockchain. We set up an economic theoretical framework of the blockchain and establish the equilibrium conditions. From both short-term and long-term perspectives, we explore the causal mechanism of blockchain forks caused by miners' vested interests, blockchain application value judgments and mining difficulty adjustments. Furthermore we discuss the impact of miners' risk aversion and multi-chain mining. Due to the difference of computing power and miners interest demands, the roll back operation hardly leads to consensus. The original chain forks into a high-value, high-difficulty new chain and a low-value, low-difficulty old chain, which destroys the optimal balance of blockchain. Our conclusions deepen the theory of blockchain governance and provide meaningful enlightenments for the development and supervision of blockchain, especially regarding the question of whether the blockchain technology could be adopted by digital currency.

Key words: blockchain governance, consensus, fork, digital economy, equilibrium